Complications of Anti-inflammatory Medications                               Preventing Hypothermia


The Female Athlete Triad                                                                        Preventing Runner's Knee


Hamstring Injuries in Runners                                                                Race Day Hydration


Heel Pain                                                                                                   Resistance Training


Injury Prevention                                                                                      Runner Safety Information


IT Band Syndrome                                                                                    Running and Low Iron


Marathon Runner's Foot-care                                                                 Running and the Immune System


Muscle Cramps                                                                                         Shin Pain in Runners


Nutrition                                                                                                    Stress Fractures


The Pre-Race Meal                                                                                   The Truth About Thirst


                                                                                                                    Tips for Running in the Summer Heat


  1. The goal to blister prevention and happy feet is reducing friction between your foot and the sock/shoe.

  2. Main strategies to reduce friction include: 

    • Reduce moisture

    • Reduce loads you carry while running (backpacks, etc.)

    • Properly fit shoewear

    • Use moisture wicking socks

    • Make sure your shoes are “broken in” prior to race day.

    • Also make sure your feet are “broken in” (the more challenges your feet have had over time, the more adapted and resilient they will become to the frictional stresses induced by marathon running)

  3. What’s been shown to work well?

    • Polyester or acrylic socks (socks made of material that wicks moisture away) (not cotton or wool socks that absorb moisture)

    • Powders: Be careful with powders, as they tend to clump when moist and thus can be a source of irritation and friction

    • Dry salts (aluminum chloride) used in the days prior to an event—however, these salts can be irritating to the skin and thus some runners can’t tolerate using them.

  4. What interventions are promising but without specific clinical evidence?

    • Second-skin

    • Blist-o-ban

    • Body glide

    • Duct tape

    • Petroleum jelly



  1. Train wisely—increase mileage in gradual increments (no greater than 10% per week)

  2. Wear appropriately supportive shoes, and change them when worn down (typically when you reached 300-400 miles of use)

  3. Stretch the front thigh muscles (quadriceps)

  4. Strengthen the outside hip muscles (hip abductors) in order to have better control of the thigh bone (femur) as well as the knee cap (patella) tracking over the femur.

  5. Use a neoprene knee sleeve or taping techniques to support your knee cap for early symptomatic treatment.

For more information, see Runner’s Knee article.



  1. Use a foam role for self massage (it hurts, but can be exceedingly helpful to keep you running)

  2. Ice the outside of the knee if painful after runs

  3. Stretch, stretch, stretch... 

    • the IT Band and its muscle of origin at the hip (tensor fascia lata)

  4. Strengthen, strengthen, strengthen...

    • the hip abductors (outside hip muscles, gluteus medius)

    • preferentially over the tensor fascia lata (which tends to be overactive and overused in runners with IT Band syndrome and other lower limb overuse injuries)

For more information, see IT Band Syndrome article.



  1. Determine the predicted weather conditions for your race

  2. Choose a day before your race that will have similar weather conditions to race day (in temperature and humidity) for a one hour simulation run

  3. Weigh yourself unclothed before your run

  4. Put your running clothes on

  5. Run for one hour without drinking or eating anything, at marathon pace

  6. Undress, dry yourself off and weigh yourself again unclothed

  7. The weight difference is the amount of fluid you’ve lost 

    • 1 pound = 16 ounces

    • Thus, if you lost 1 pound during this one hour run, you need to drink 4 ounces of fluid every 15 minutes to replace your losses and stay appropriately hydrated.

For more information, see Hydration Strategies article.